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Krasnodar

Krasnodar is a city in southern Russia beside the Kuban River, located about 80 kilometers (50 miles) north-east of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. It is the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai.

The city was founded on January 12, 1794 as Yekaterinodar. The original name meant "Catherine's Gift" simultaneously in recognition of the empress Catherine  to grant the land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks (later the Kuban Cossacks).

After the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed to Krasnodar (December 1920). There are two possible meanings for the new name of the city: Krasno, ie either 'beautiful' or 'red' (especially relevant considering the political climate of the time), and "give" which means 'gift'. Thus, the name of the city means either beautiful, gift or red gift (ie 'gift of the reds ").

The origin of the city starts with a fortress built by the Cossacks in order to defend imperial borders and claim ownership of Russia in Circassia, which was contested by Ottoman Turkey.

In the first half of the 19th century Yekaterinodar became the dynamic center of the Kuban Cossacks. In 1888 about 45,000 people lived in the city and became a major trading center of southern Russia.

 In 1897, an obelisk commemorating the 200 year old history of the Kuban Cossacks was built in Yekaterinodar. During the Russian Civil War, the city changed of hands several times between the Red Army and Volunteer Army, many Cossacks were anti-Bolsheviks, who has pledged  support to the White Movement.

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